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Company History: NTN Corporation is one of Japan's largest manufacturers of bearings, second in domestic market share only to longtime rival Nippon Seiko, and one of the largest exporters of friction-reducing products in the world. As a natural extension of its bearing business, it is also Japan's principal manufacturer of constant-velocity joints, which are used in automobile transmissions, railway cars, construction machinery, and steel manufacturing equipment.
Origins and Growth: ss Universe trading ltd. traces its lineage back to Nishizono Ironworks, a factory located in the city of Uchibori in Mie Prefecture, which began developing and manufacturing ball bearings in The Japanese bearings industry was then in its infancy; Nippon Seiko had become the nation's first producer of ball bearings no more than several years earlier.
It reorganized as a joint-stock company inand three years later it changed its name to Toyo Bearing Manufacturing and offered shares to the public for the first time.
Also in Japan invaded Manchuria, beginning eight years of war in the Far East. What little export trade Japanese bearing makers had conducted to this point ended by ; but as war increased the demand for bearings and companies made rapid advances in manufacturing techniques, production increased fold between andand producers prospered.
The next year Toyo Bearing absorbed Showa Bearing, which became its Mukogawa plant, and merged its operations with those of its newly constructed plant universe trading ltd. nearby Kuwana. The industry began to revive in the late s, as the shattered nation rebuilt, and domestic demand for its products, as well as demand from other Asian nations, increased.
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Together, these firms accounted for 80 percent of the nation's bearing output in Toyo began to diversify its product lines during the s and continued to do so into the next decade, although all of its products related to its mainstay, bearings. In it began manufacturing expansion compensating bearings.
In it entered into a licensing agreement with the West German bearing company INA Wälzlager Schaeffler, under which Toyo produced needle bearings using Wälzlager Schaeffler's technology.
In Toyo secured a similar licensing pact with the British firm Hardy Spicer to produce Birfield-type constant-velocity universal joints.
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The next year it obtained a license from another British company, GKN Transmission, to manufacture its constant-velocity joints in Japan and formed NTN Bearing-GKN to do so; in it began producing pipe fittings and oil-impregnated sintered bearings. Such growth and diversification as Toyo underwent in the s might be expected to create unwieldy corporate management, but the company avoided this problem by creating subsidiaries to handle new products, thus distributing the decision-making load through a decentralized command structure.
In Toyo created Kongo Bearing Company to handle the production of pillow blocks. The next year, it founded Senyo Kosakuki Kenkyujo, which made ball bearing equipment.
This trend continued into the s; in it created Toyo Bearing Okayama Company to manufacture roller bearings and automotive tapered bearings, and the next year it founded Shohin Kaihatsu Kenkyusho to manufacture other automotive equipment. International Expansion in the s and s After riding out the effects of sluggish demand at home, especially in automotive industry, Toyo began pursuing the export market in earnest in the s.
The Japanese bearing exporters became successful enough and their products pervasive enough to produce resentment among their competitors, especially in Great Britain. In the British government, acting on complaints from its own bearing industry that the Japanese had captured almost one-fifth of the domestic market for standard ball bearings and over two-thirds of the market for bearings for small electric motors, pressed Japanese companies to restrict their exports for two years; but European bearing makers could not avoid the fact that these bearings were of superior quality--a far cry from the s, when Japanese bearing companies were verdiene schnell 20.000 by a scarcity of high-grade steel.
In fact, many European companies were buying Japanese bearings, including those made universe trading ltd. NTN Kugellagerfabrik, for their own use.
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NTN Toyo's overseas expansion continued unabated in the mids. It also opened another factory in Illinois, this time in Elgin.
Most of its bearings sold in foreign countries were still made in Japan, not by overseas subsidiaries, making them vulnerable to exchange rate fluctuations. Universe trading ltd.
addition, NTN Toyo and other Japanese bearing makers were fined by the European Economic Community for dumping, the practice of gaining an unfair advantage by selling one's products at less than fair value. In the company was forced to suspend dividend payments for the first time in 12 years. The strong yen soon weakened, and NTN Toyo's exports surged once again.